History of rice cultivation

Oryza sativa was domesticated from the wild grass Oryza rufipogon roughly 10,000–14,000 years ago. The two main subspecies of rice – indica (prevalent in tropical regions) and japonica (prevalent in the subtropical and temperate regions of East Asia) – are not believed to have been derived from independent domestication events. Another cultivated species, O. glaberrima, was domesticated much later in West Africa.

Recent genetic evidence show that all forms of Asian rice, both indica and japonica, come from a single domestication event that occurred 8,200–13,500 years ago in the Pearl River valley region of China.

In China, extensive archeological evidence points to the middle Yangtze and upper Huai rivers as the two earliest places of O. sativa cultivation in the country. Rice and farming implements dating back at least 8,000 years have been found. Cultivation spread down these rivers over the following 2,000 years. 

history-of-rice-cultivation1b

Puddling the soil – turning it to mud to break it down and prevent too much water percolating away – and transplanting seedlings were likely refined in China. Both operations became integral parts of rice farming and remain widely practiced to this day. With the development of puddling and transplanting, rice became truly domesticated. 

Movement to western India and south to Sri Lanka was also accomplished very early. Rice was a major crop in Sri Lanka as early as 1000 B.C. The crop may well have been introduced to Greece and the neighboring areas of the Mediterranean by returning members of Alexander the Great’s expedition to India around 344-324 B.C. From a center in Greece and Sicily, rice spread gradually throughout southern Europe and to a few locations in northern Africa. 

As a result of Europe’s great Age of Exploration, new lands to the west became available for exploitation. Rice cultivation was introduced to the New World by early European settlers. The Portuguese carried it to Brazil and the Spanish introduced its cultivation to several locations in Central and South America. The first record for North America dates from 1685, when the crop was produced on the coastal lowlands and islands of what is now South Carolina. It is thought that slaves from West Africa who were transported to the Carolinas in the mid-18th century introduced the complex agricultural technology needed to grow rice. Their labor then insured a flourishing rice industry. By the 20th century, rice was produced in California’s Sacramento Valley. The introduction into California corresponded almost exactly with the timing of the first successful crop in Australia’s New South Wales. 

Regional development of rice cultivation

Asia

history-of-rice-cultivation4Based on archeological evidence, rice was believed to have first been domesticated in the region of the Yangtze River valley in China. Morphological studies of rice phytoliths from the Diaotonghuan archaeological site clearly show the transition from the collection of wild rice to the cultivation of domesticated rice. The large number of wild rice phytoliths at the Diaotonghuan level dating from 12,000–11,000 BP indicates that wild rice collection was part of the local means of subsistence. Changes in the morphology of Diaotonghuan phytoliths dating from 10,000–8,000 BP show that rice had by this time been domesticated.[28] Soon afterwards the two major varieties of indica and japonica rice were being grown in Central China. In the late 3rd millennium BC, there was a rapid expansion of rice cultivation into mainland Southeast Asia and westwards across India and Nepal.

In 2003, Korean archaeologists claimed to have discovered the world's oldest domesticated rice. Their 15,000 year old age challenges the accepted view that rice cultivation originated in China about 12,000 years ago. These findings were received by academia with strong skepticism, and the results and their publicizing has been cited as being driven by a combination of nationalist and regional interests.In 2011, a combined effort by the Stanford University, New York University, Washington University in St. Louis, and Purdue University has provided the strongest evidence yet that there is only one single origin of domesticated rice, in the Yangtze Valley of China.

The earliest remains of the grain in the Indian subcontinent have been found in the Indo-Gangetic Plain and date from 7000–6000 BC though the earliest widely accepted date for cultivated rice is placed at around 3000–2500 BC with findings in regions belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization. Perennial wild rices still grow in Assam and Nepal. It seems to have appeared around 1400 BC in southern India after its domestication in the northern plains. It then spread to all the fertile alluvial plains watered by rivers. Cultivation and cooking methods are thought to have spread to the west rapidly and by medieval times, southern Europe saw the introduction of rice as a hearty grain.

O. sativa was recovered from a grave at Susa in Iran (dated to the 1st century AD) at one end of the ancient world, another domestication of rice in South Asia.

Today, the majority of all rice produced comes from China, India, Indonesia, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Vietnam, Thailand, Myanmar, Philippines, and Japan. Asian farmers still account for 92% of the world's total rice production.

Africa

history-of-rice-cultivation5African rice has been cultivated for 3500 years. Between 1500 and 800 BC, Oryza glaberrima propagated from its original centre, the Niger River delta, and extended to Senegal. However, it never developed far from its original region. Its cultivation even declined in favour of the Asian species, which was introduced to East Africa early in the common era and spread westward. African rice helped Africa conquer its famine of 1203.

Rest of the world

Middle East

Rice was grown in some areas of southern Iraq. With the rise of Islam it moved north to Nisibin, the southern shores of the Caspian Sea and then beyond the Muslim world into the valley of Volga. In Egypt, rice is mainly grown in the Nile Delta. In Palestine, rice came to be grown in the Jordan Valley. Rice is also grown in Yemen.

Europe

The Moors brought Asiatic rice to the Iberian Peninsula in the 10th century. Records indicate it was grown in Valencia and Majorca. In Majorca, rice cultivation seems to have stopped after the Christian conquest, although historians are not certain.

Muslims also brought rice to Sicily, where it was an important crop long before it is noted in the plain of Pisa (1468) or in the Lombard plain (1475), where its cultivation was promoted by Ludovico Sforza, Duke of Milan, and demonstrated in his model farms.

After the 15th century, rice spread throughout Italy and then France, later propagating to all the continents during the age of European exploration.The Ottomans introduced rice to the Balkans.

Caribbean and Latin America

Rice is not native to the Americas but was introduced to Latin America and the Caribbean by European colonizers at an early date with Spanish colonizers introducing Asian rice to Mexico in the 1520s at Veracruz and the Portuguese and their African slaves introducing it at about the same time to Colonial Brazil. Recent scholarship suggests that enslaved Africans played an active role in the establishment of rice in the New World and that African rice was an important crop from an early period. Varieties of rice and bean dishes that were a staple dish along the peoples of West Africa remained a staple among their descendants subjected to slavery in the Spanish New World colonies, Brazil and elsewhere in the Americas.

The Native Americans of what is now the Eastern United States may have practiced extensive agriculture with forms of wild rice. (References to wild rice in the Americas are to the unrelated Zizania palustris.)

United States

In the United States, colonial South Carolina and Georgia grew and amassed great wealth from the Slavery labor obtained from the Senegambia area of West Africa and from coastal Sierra Leone. At the port of Charleston, through which 40% of all American slave imports passed, slaves from this region of Africa brought the highest prices, in recognition of their prior knowledge of rice culture, which was put to use on the many rice plantations around Georgetown, Charleston, and Savannah. From the enslaved Africans, plantation owners learned how to dyke the marshes and periodically flood the fields. At first the rice was milled by hand with wooden paddles, then winnowed in sweetgrass baskets (the making of which was another skill brought by slaves from Africa). The invention of the rice mill increased profitability of the crop, and the addition of water power for the mills in 1787 by millwright Jonathan Lucas was another step forward. Rice culture in the southeastern U.S. became less profitable with the loss of slave labor after the American Civil War, and it finally died out just after the turn of the 20th century. Today, people can visit the only remaining rice plantation in South Carolina that still has the original winnowing barn and rice mill from the mid-19th century at the historic Mansfield Plantation in Georgetown, South Carolina. The predominant strain of rice in the Carolinas was from Africa and was known as "Carolina Gold." The cultivar has been preserved and there are current attempts to reintroduce it as a commercially grown crop.

In the southern United States, rice has been grown in southern Arkansas, Louisiana, and east Texas since the mid-19th century. Many Cajun farmers grew rice in wet marshes and low lying prairies where they could also farm crayfish when the fields were flooded. In recent years rice production has risen in North America, especially in the Mississippi River Delta areas in the states of Arkansas and Mississippi.

Rice cultivation began in California during the California Gold Rush, when an estimated 40,000 Chinese laborers immigrated to the state and grew small amounts of the grain for their own consumption. However, commercial production began only in 1912 in the town of Richvale in Butte County. By 2006, California produced the second largest rice crop in the United States, after Arkansas, with production concentrated in six counties north of Sacramento. Unlike the Mississippi Delta region, California's production is dominated by short- and medium-grain japonica varieties, including cultivars developed for the local climate such as Calrose, which makes up as much as 85% of the state's crop.

More than 100 varieties of rice are commercially produced primarily in six states (Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and California) in the U.S. According to estimates for the 2006 crop year, rice production in the U.S. is valued at $1.88 billion, approximately half of which is expected to be exported. The U.S. provides about 12% of world rice trade. The majority of domestic utilization of U.S. rice is direct food use (58%), while 16% is used in each of processed foods and beer. The remaining 10% is found in pet food.

Australia

history-of-rice-cultivation3

Rice was one of the earliest crops planted in Australia by British settlers, who had experience with rice plantations in the Americas and the subcontinent.

Although attempts to grow rice in the well-watered north of Australia have been made for many years, they have consistently failed because of inherent iron and manganese toxicities in the soils and destruction by pests.

In the 1920s it was seen as a possible irrigation crop on soils within the Murray-Darling Basin that were too heavy for the cultivation of fruit and too infertile for wheat.

Because irrigation water, despite the extremely low runoff of temperate Australia, was (and remains) very cheap, the growing of rice was taken up by agricultural groups over the following decades. Californian varieties of rice were found suitable for the climate in the Riverina, and the first mill opened at Leeton in 1951.

Even before this Australia's rice production greatly exceeded local needs, and rice exports to Japan have become a major source of foreign currency. Above-average rainfall from the 1950s to the middle 1990s encouraged the expansion of the Riverina rice industry, but its prodigious water use in a practically waterless region began to attract the attention of environmental scientists. These became severely concerned with declining flow in the Snowy River and the lower Murray River.

Although rice growing in Australia is highly profitable due to the cheapness of land, several recent years of severe drought have led many to call for its elimination because of its effects on extremely fragile aquatic ecosystems. The Australian rice industry is somewhat opportunistic, with the area planted varying significantly from season to season depending on water allocations in the Murray and Murrumbidgee irrigation regions.

 http://ricepedia.org/culture/h...-of-rice-cultivation

Original Post

Africa

African rice has been cultivated for 3500 years. Between 1500 and 800 BC, Oryza glaberrima propagated from its original centre, the Niger River delta, and extended to Senegal. However, it never developed far from its original region. Its cultivation even declined in favour of the Asian species, which was introduced to East Africa early in the common era and spread westward. African rice helped Africa conquer its famine of 1203.

United States

In the United States, colonial South Carolina and Georgia grew and amassed great wealth from the Slavery labor obtained from the Senegambia area of West Africa and from coastal Sierra Leone. At the port of Charleston, through which 40% of all American slave imports passed, slaves from this region of Africa brought the highest prices, in recognition of their prior knowledge of rice culture, which was put to use on the many rice plantations around Georgetown, Charleston, and Savannah. From the enslaved Africans, plantation owners learned how to dyke the marshes and periodically flood the fields. At first the rice was milled by hand with wooden paddles, then winnowed in sweetgrass baskets (the making of which was another skill brought by slaves from Africa).


 

 Read the two paragraphs  above.

If alyuh take time to read how "Cookup rice"  came about and the link to Africa,the origin of rice  will be settled.

Also take some notes how rice plantation started in Guyana.

Drugb posted:

I had to school d2 on the origin of rice. I think he has learnt his lesson, no need to keep rubbing it in. But I see the slopster still hold on to his erroneous position. 

Shitposter, still trying to save face ,the plagiarizing didn't help. Thumping your chest about schooling.

Django posted:
Drugb posted:

I had to school d2 on the origin of rice. I think he has learnt his lesson, no need to keep rubbing it in. But I see the slopster still hold on to his erroneous position. 

Shitposter, still trying to save face ,the plagiarizing didn't help. Thumping your chest about schooling.

Bannas like you looking for a good banning. Quit with the name calling before I set Ray pun yuh rass. You run to ray the other day and get me banned, now you provoking me again. 

yuji22 posted:

History of rice cultivation

 

Caribbean and Latin America

Rice is not native to the Americas but was introduced to Latin America and the Caribbean by European colonizers at an early date with Spanish colonizers introducing Asian rice to Mexico in the 1520s at Veracruz and the Portuguese and their African slaves introducing it at about the same time to Colonial Brazil. Recent scholarship suggests that enslaved Africans played an active role in the establishment of rice in the New World and that African rice was an important crop from an early period. Varieties of rice and bean dishes that were a staple dish along the peoples of West Africa remained a staple among their descendants subjected to slavery in the Spanish New World colonies, Brazil and elsewhere in the Americas.

The Native Americans of what is now the Eastern United States may have practiced extensive agriculture with forms of wild rice. (References to wild rice in the Americas are to the unrelated Zizania palustris.)

United States

In the United States, colonial South Carolina and Georgia grew and amassed great wealth from the Slavery labor obtained from the Senegambia area of West Africa and from coastal Sierra Leone. At the port of Charleston, through which 40% of all American slave imports passed, slaves from this region of Africa brought the highest prices, in recognition of their prior knowledge of rice culture, which was put to use on the many rice plantations around Georgetown, Charleston, and Savannah. From the enslaved Africans, plantation owners learned how to dyke the marshes and periodically flood the fields. At first the rice was milled by hand with wooden paddles, then winnowed in sweetgrass baskets (the making of which was another skill brought by slaves from Africa).

 http://ricepedia.org/culture/h...-of-rice-cultivation

Druggie just got a mental breakdown as he is trying to peddle that black people knew nothing about rice until 1838 when the first Indians arrived.

Drugb posted:

I had to school d2 on the origin of rice.

School who.

1.  African rice had NOTHING to do with Chinese rice.

2.  The first rice cultivators in much of the Americas were Africans.

3. Their knowledge in rice cultivation was much prized by rice plantation owners in South Carolina. 

Drugb posted:
Django posted:
Drugb posted:

I had to school d2 on the origin of rice. I think he has learnt his lesson, no need to keep rubbing it in. But I see the slopster still hold on to his erroneous position. 

Shitposter, still trying to save face ,the plagiarizing didn't help. Thumping your chest about schooling.

Bannas like you looking for a good banning. Quit with the name calling before I set Ray pun yuh rass. You run to ray the other day and get me banned, now you provoking me again. 

Inform him,you are free to do that, didn't run to Ray you dreaming.

 

https://knowyourmeme.com/memes/shitposting

About

"Shitposting" is an Internet slang term describing a range of user misbehaviors and rhetoric on forums and message boards that are intended to derail a conversation off-topic, including thread jacking, circlejerking and non-commercial spamming. On 4chan, the byproduct of shitposting is referred to as cancer.

caribny posted:
Druggie just got a mental breakdown as he is trying to peddle that black people knew nothing about rice until 1838 when the first Indians arrived.

More specifically, the Guyanese Blacks. They brought fufu with them from Africa, not cookup. In fact they were failures at rice cultivation, it was the IndoGs who took it to another level and made it commercially viable. 

caribny posted:
Drugb posted:

I had to school d2 on the origin of rice.

School who.

1.  African rice had NOTHING to do with Chinese rice.

2.  The first rice cultivators in much of the Americas were Africans.

3. Their knowledge in rice cultivation was much prized by rice plantation owners in South Carolina. 

That banna don't understand the points, trying all sorts of stuff to save face.

Drugb posted:
caribny posted:
Druggie just got a mental breakdown as he is trying to peddle that black people knew nothing about rice until 1838 when the first Indians arrived.

More specifically, the Guyanese Blacks. They brought fufu with them from Africa, not cookup. In fact they were failures at rice cultivation, it was the IndoGs who took it to another level and made it commercially viable. 

LOL,

Banna you don't know Guyana history, here is little tit-bit, Non-returning Indentured East Indians got lands at Land Settlements Schemes,from then on rice production increased.

Drugb posted:
caribny posted:
Druggie just got a mental breakdown as he is trying to peddle that black people knew nothing about rice until 1838 when the first Indians arrived.

More specifically, the Guyanese Blacks. They brought fufu with them from Africa, not cookup. In fact they were failures at rice cultivation, it was the IndoGs who took it to another level and made it commercially viable. 

Druggie why don't you give up.  Depending on the region of Africa they came from they brought BOTH fufu and rice.

Are you suggesting that Indians only eat roti, so any other food product cannot be connected to them?

Please tell me why Africans went elsewhere in the Americas and developed rice dishes and not in Guyana?  The fact that ultimately they didn't become big rice farmers is another project.  Rice cultivation was always a subsistence crop for them. 

You do know the lengths that the planter class went to ensure that the village communities failed.  Just as the same people ensured that Indians were kept away from rudimentary education by making it difficult for non Christian groups to open schools.  The result being that you are a DUNCE.

Django posted:
Drugb posted:
caribny posted:
Druggie just got a mental breakdown as he is trying to peddle that black people knew nothing about rice until 1838 when the first Indians arrived.

More specifically, the Guyanese Blacks. They brought fufu with them from Africa, not cookup. In fact they were failures at rice cultivation, it was the IndoGs who took it to another level and made it commercially viable. 

LOL,

Banna you don't know Guyana history, here is little tit-bit, Non-returning Indentured East Indians got lands at Land Settlements,from then on rice planting increased.

In fact Indian involvement in farming was encouraged. Similar attempts by blacks were destroyed because the colonial authorities feared the rise of a prosperous business and property owning class of blacks.

Django posted:
caribny posted:
Drugb posted:

I had to school d2 on the origin of rice.

School who.

1.  African rice had NOTHING to do with Chinese rice.

2.  The first rice cultivators in much of the Americas were Africans.

3. Their knowledge in rice cultivation was much prized by rice plantation owners in South Carolina. 

That banna don't understand the points, trying all sorts of stuff to save face.

No he is merely undergoing his usual manic episodes whenever he cannot prove that blacks are failures.  RH is full of Guyanese stores accepting food stamps and yet he thinks that all Guyanese Indians are prosperous.

Rice and peas/beans dishes are popular in the Americas wherever blacks arrived and are also in Guyana.  Yet he screams that all Guyanese blacks did was eat fufu.

caribny posted:
Django posted:
Drugb posted:
caribny posted:
Druggie just got a mental breakdown as he is trying to peddle that black people knew nothing about rice until 1838 when the first Indians arrived.

More specifically, the Guyanese Blacks. They brought fufu with them from Africa, not cookup. In fact they were failures at rice cultivation, it was the IndoGs who took it to another level and made it commercially viable. 

LOL,

Banna you don't know Guyana history, here is little tit-bit, Non-returning Indentured East Indians got lands at Land Settlements,from then on rice planting increased.

In fact Indian involvement in farming was encouraged. Similar attempts by blacks were destroyed because the colonial authorities feared the rise of a prosperous business and property owning class of blacks.

Exactly, after freedom they were hindered from progressing, simply if they progressed where will the labor come from.

One of the reasons Indentured Labor started.

caribny posted:
Druggie why don't you give up.  Depending on the region of Africa they came from they brought BOTH fufu and rice. Are you suggesting that Indians only eat roti, so any other food product cannot be connected to them? Please tell me why Africans went elsewhere in the Americas and developed rice dishes and not in Guyana?  The fact that ultimately they didn't become big rice farmers is another project.  Rice cultivation was always a subsistence crop for them. You do know the lengths that the planter class went to ensure that the village communities failed.  Just as the same people ensured that Indians were kept away from rudimentary education by making it difficult for non Christian groups to open schools.  The result being that you are a DUNCE.

You of all people should know that Blacks came as slaves, they were captured and didn't have time to pack a doggie bag, sorry. So no rice seeds. In fact the slavers brought the ground provisions to cultivate as this was the diet that Afros had at that point in time. The African rice that slop boy and sakiwinki refers was more of an exclusive crop and not widespread. Ground provision was more popular as it provided a greater nutritional bang for the bucks.  

caribny posted:

Rice and peas/beans dishes are popular in the Americas wherever blacks arrived and are also in Guyana.  Yet he screams that all Guyanese blacks did was eat fufu.

You are really living in an alternate universe. Look around you, even the same one agreeing with you made sure that they live in non black neighborhoods.   Ask d2, django, tola and others where they live and if they answer truthfully you will note that their areas are devoid of blacks like you.  They only come here and give you lip service and then go home to their white neighbors. 

Yes it is documented that the Guyanese Blacks diet was whatever the slave masters provided, rice was not part of it originally, even though later on the slavers tried to introduce rice production to supplement.

Look at this site and do a find on rice, not 1 hit. Now go argue with the people at liverpool museums. 

 

http://www.liverpoolmuseums.or...bean/caribbean2.aspx

Drugb posted:
caribny posted:
Druggie why don't you give up.  Depending on the region of Africa they came from they brought BOTH fufu and rice. Are you suggesting that Indians only eat roti, so any other food product cannot be connected to them? Please tell me why Africans went elsewhere in the Americas and developed rice dishes and not in Guyana?  The fact that ultimately they didn't become big rice farmers is another project.  Rice cultivation was always a subsistence crop for them. You do know the lengths that the planter class went to ensure that the village communities failed.  Just as the same people ensured that Indians were kept away from rudimentary education by making it difficult for non Christian groups to open schools.  The result being that you are a DUNCE.

You of all people should know that Blacks came as slaves, they were captured and didn't have time to pack a doggie bag, sorry. So no rice seeds. In fact the slavers brought the ground provisions to cultivate as this was the diet that Afros had at that point in time. The African rice that slop boy and sakiwinki refers was more of an exclusive crop and not widespread. Ground provision was more popular as it provided a greater nutritional bang for the bucks.  

Still prancing with shittypost.

Django posted:
Drugb posted:
caribny posted:
Druggie why don't you give up.  Depending on the region of Africa they came from they brought BOTH fufu and rice. Are you suggesting that Indians only eat roti, so any other food product cannot be connected to them? Please tell me why Africans went elsewhere in the Americas and developed rice dishes and not in Guyana?  The fact that ultimately they didn't become big rice farmers is another project.  Rice cultivation was always a subsistence crop for them. You do know the lengths that the planter class went to ensure that the village communities failed.  Just as the same people ensured that Indians were kept away from rudimentary education by making it difficult for non Christian groups to open schools.  The result being that you are a DUNCE.

You of all people should know that Blacks came as slaves, they were captured and didn't have time to pack a doggie bag, sorry. So no rice seeds. In fact the slavers brought the ground provisions to cultivate as this was the diet that Afros had at that point in time. The African rice that slop boy and sakiwinki refers was more of an exclusive crop and not widespread. Ground provision was more popular as it provided a greater nutritional bang for the bucks.  

Still prancing with shittypost.

Bannas, when you go in a rumshop, yuh does notice that rum bottle on one shelf and soda on another shelf? Stick to your shelf and let big men converse on matters beyond your limited schooling. 

Drugb posted:
 

You of all people should know that Blacks came as slaves, they were captured and didn't have time to pack a doggie bag, .  

So how do you think all of those African root vegetables reached the Americas.  More intelligent people than you in a post of yours revealed that much of the rice grown in South Carolina was of the African variety.

The thing is you bring up posts that undermine your argument and yet still scream.

What's wrong with you?

Drugb posted:
 

Yes it is documented that the Guyanese Blacks diet was whatever the slave masters provided, rice was not part of it originally, even though later on the slavers tried to introduce rice production to supplement.

Look at this site and do a find on rice, not 1 hit. Now go argue with the people at liverpool museums. 

 

http://www.liverpoolmuseums.or...bean/caribbean2.aspx

 

Brazilians eat rice. Jamaicans eat rice. Cubans eat rice. Haitians eat rice as do blacks in the southern states. NONE of those places had Asian populations when rice consumption became a fact of life.

Do you know that St Kitts Nevis has a dish called cook up rice? 

 

Just now you will scream that Indians  brought cook up rice to Guyana and St Kitts.  When I went to the Music Festival there years ago I had a delicious pig tail and pigeon peas cook up.

Some of them might even think that Indians only began to eat rice when they came to the Caribbean because just as your ignorant ass thinks that all blacks eat is fufu I bet that some of them think that all Indians eat is roti,

caribny posted:
yuji22 posted:

History of rice cultivation

 

Caribbean and Latin America

Rice is not native to the Americas but was introduced to Latin America and the Caribbean by European colonizers at an early date with Spanish colonizers introducing Asian rice to Mexico in the 1520s at Veracruz and the Portuguese and their African slaves introducing it at about the same time to Colonial Brazil. Recent scholarship suggests that enslaved Africans played an active role in the establishment of rice in the New World and that African rice was an important crop from an early period. Varieties of rice and bean dishes that were a staple dish along the peoples of West Africa remained a staple among their descendants subjected to slavery in the Spanish New World colonies, Brazil and elsewhere in the Americas.

The Native Americans of what is now the Eastern United States may have practiced extensive agriculture with forms of wild rice. (References to wild rice in the Americas are to the unrelated Zizania palustris.)

United States

In the United States, colonial South Carolina and Georgia grew and amassed great wealth from the Slavery labor obtained from the Senegambia area of West Africa and from coastal Sierra Leone. At the port of Charleston, through which 40% of all American slave imports passed, slaves from this region of Africa brought the highest prices, in recognition of their prior knowledge of rice culture, which was put to use on the many rice plantations around Georgetown, Charleston, and Savannah. From the enslaved Africans, plantation owners learned how to dyke the marshes and periodically flood the fields. At first the rice was milled by hand with wooden paddles, then winnowed in sweetgrass baskets (the making of which was another skill brought by slaves from Africa).

 http://ricepedia.org/culture/h...-of-rice-cultivation

Druggie just got a mental breakdown as he is trying to peddle that black people knew nothing about rice until 1838 when the first Indians arrived.

It is possible that Druggie is blind and not stupid.   This is from one of our fellow Indo KKK.

caribny posted:
caribny posted:
yuji22 posted:

History of rice cultivation

 

Caribbean and Latin America

Rice is not native to the Americas but was introduced to Latin America and the Caribbean by European colonizers at an early date with Spanish colonizers introducing Asian rice to Mexico in the 1520s at Veracruz and the Portuguese and their African slaves introducing it at about the same time to Colonial Brazil. Recent scholarship suggests that enslaved Africans played an active role in the establishment of rice in the New World and that African rice was an important crop from an early period. Varieties of rice and bean dishes that were a staple dish along the peoples of West Africa remained a staple among their descendants subjected to slavery in the Spanish New World colonies, Brazil and elsewhere in the Americas.

The Native Americans of what is now the Eastern United States may have practiced extensive agriculture with forms of wild rice. (References to wild rice in the Americas are to the unrelated Zizania palustris.)

United States

In the United States, colonial South Carolina and Georgia grew and amassed great wealth from the Slavery labor obtained from the Senegambia area of West Africa and from coastal Sierra Leone. At the port of Charleston, through which 40% of all American slave imports passed, slaves from this region of Africa brought the highest prices, in recognition of their prior knowledge of rice culture, which was put to use on the many rice plantations around Georgetown, Charleston, and Savannah. From the enslaved Africans, plantation owners learned how to dyke the marshes and periodically flood the fields. At first the rice was milled by hand with wooden paddles, then winnowed in sweetgrass baskets (the making of which was another skill brought by slaves from Africa).

 http://ricepedia.org/culture/h...-of-rice-cultivation

Druggie just got a mental breakdown as he is trying to peddle that black people knew nothing about rice until 1838 when the first Indians arrived.

It is possible that Druggie is blind and not stupid.   This is from one of our fellow Indo KKK.

The afros in the new world only learnt of rice cultivation at the behest of their masters and the end of a whip. Their involvement in its cultivation was merely laborers fulfilling their masters instructions. 

caribny posted:
So how do you think all of those African root vegetables reached the Americas.  More intelligent people than you in a post of yours revealed that much of the rice grown in South Carolina was of the African variety.

The thing is you bring up posts that undermine your argument and yet still scream.

What's wrong with you?

It was common practice for the slave masters to bring along indigenous foods of their captives as part of nutritional planning. 

caribny posted:
Django posted:
Drugb posted:
caribny posted:
Druggie just got a mental breakdown as he is trying to peddle that black people knew nothing about rice until 1838 when the first Indians arrived.

More specifically, the Guyanese Blacks. They brought fufu with them from Africa, not cookup. In fact they were failures at rice cultivation, it was the IndoGs who took it to another level and made it commercially viable. 

LOL,

Banna you don't know Guyana history, here is little tit-bit, Non-returning Indentured East Indians got lands at Land Settlements,from then on rice planting increased.

In fact Indian involvement in farming was encouraged. Similar attempts by blacks were destroyed because the colonial authorities feared the rise of a prosperous business and property owning class of blacks.

The black slaves were given parcels of land after emancipation , many feared working the land and ran away, some sold the land to the indentured . The Indians then cultivated the lands with rice, kitchen vegetables, coconuts and other cash crops.

Many Blacks despised farming the land for it reminded them of the hardships endured under the White Masters, that is why even up to today almost all the cane and rice farmers are Indians in Guyana.

caribny posted:

 

Brazilians eat rice. Jamaicans eat rice. Cubans eat rice. Haitians eat rice as do blacks in the southern states. NONE of those places had Asian populations when rice consumption became a fact of life.

Do you know that St Kitts Nevis has a dish called cook up rice? 

 

Just now you will scream that Indians  brought cook up rice to Guyana and St Kitts.  When I went to the Music Festival there years ago I had a delicious pig tail and pigeon peas cook up.

Some of them might even think that Indians only began to eat rice when they came to the Caribbean because just as your ignorant ass thinks that all blacks eat is fufu I bet that some of them think that all Indians eat is roti,

Bannas yuh head hard, how many times I have to tell you that the slave masters/ colonizers were the ones who introduced rice to these places. Not the slaves or indentured servants. 

Drugb posted:
Django posted:
 

Still prancing with shittypost.

Bannas, when you go in a rumshop, yuh does notice that rum bottle on one shelf and soda on another shelf? Stick to your shelf and let big men converse on matters beyond your limited schooling. 

Racist shittyposter, you can't come close to my schooling, you are dunce.

Trying your best to demean Africans, spitting your venom they learn to plant rice by massa whip.Every poster and readers of GNI can see thru you.Don't know why Caribj conversing with you,maybe enticing you to further expose your Racism towards Africans.

Keep on prancing.

Django posted:
Drugb posted:
Django posted:
 

Still prancing with shittypost.

Bannas, when you go in a rumshop, yuh does notice that rum bottle on one shelf and soda on another shelf? Stick to your shelf and let big men converse on matters beyond your limited schooling. 

Racist shittyposter, you can't come close to my schooling, you are dunce.

Trying your best to demean Africans, spitting your venom they learn to plant rice by massa whip.Every poster and readers of GNI can see thru you.Don't know why Caribj conversing with you,maybe enticing you to further expose your Racism towards Africans.

Keep on prancing.

Maybe Caribj is his alter ego. All the conversations look like they are coming from the same person. It's been mentioned on GNI that Drug has blacks in his family. Also Drug said he has another nick here and no one knows about it (I'm paying attention, Drug  ).

Leonora posted:
Django posted:
Drugb posted:
Django posted:
 

Still prancing with shittypost.

Bannas, when you go in a rumshop, yuh does notice that rum bottle on one shelf and soda on another shelf? Stick to your shelf and let big men converse on matters beyond your limited schooling. 

Racist shittyposter, you can't come close to my schooling, you are dunce.

Trying your best to demean Africans, spitting your venom they learn to plant rice by massa whip.Every poster and readers of GNI can see thru you.Don't know why Caribj conversing with you,maybe enticing you to further expose your Racism towards Africans.

Keep on prancing.

Maybe Caribj is his alter ego. All the conversations look like they are coming from the same person. It's been mentioned on GNI that Drug has blacks in his family. Also Drug said he has another nick here and no one knows about it (I'm paying attention, Drug  ).

I know that nick They can't hide although trying to twist their writings.Not good at playing double role.

Drugb posted:

I had to school d2 on the origin of rice. I think he has learnt his lesson, no need to keep rubbing it in. But I see the slopster still hold on to his erroneous position. 

The reality is that people like you are such big frauds you have little option but repeat the same lie over and over and hope it sticks. The rationale for this silly non informative exercise was your insistence cookup cannot be of African creation ( not mistake) because they did not have rice.

I simply reminded you your impoverished education and lack of curiosity left you intellectually stunted. Africans encountered rice and were in active cultivation of the grain for some 3 to 6 thousand years. That is the fact jack.

Rice was ubiquitous to African culture. The gullas will tell you that they were brought as slaves to the Americas  because of their skill at planting rice. America did not have Indians to plant rice. The Gullas created a vast agricultural tradition from the Carolinas to Louisiana. Rice had its beginnings everywhere in the west because of the ability to access the knowledge from African peoples. 

Delude yourself that you are the greatest if you may. Not my burden. Je m'en fou as the french would say.

Drugb posted:
caribny posted:

Rice and peas/beans dishes are popular in the Americas wherever blacks arrived and are also in Guyana.  Yet he screams that all Guyanese blacks did was eat fufu.

You are really living in an alternate universe. Look around you, even the same one agreeing with you made sure that they live in non black neighborhoods.   Ask d2, django, tola and others where they live and if they answer truthfully you will note that their areas are devoid of blacks like you.  They only come here and give you lip service and then go home to their white neighbors. 

Yes it is documented that the Guyanese Blacks diet was whatever the slave masters provided, rice was not part of it originally, even though later on the slavers tried to introduce rice production to supplement.

Look at this site and do a find on rice, not 1 hit. Now go argue with the people at liverpool museums. 

 

http://www.liverpoolmuseums.or...bean/caribbean2.aspx

I live between  two cities most most of my life.  In Philly  i live in center city and it is a mixed upscale community. It became upscale after we moved.  In DC I lived among black people  until recently. I currently live among white people in a Maryland suburb to avoid busy city life and  for more greenery and for cheap.  I do not know what this has to do with the tea in china. 

You always look for information ( or in this case non information) that you can harmonize with your ignorant claims. You do not look for the truth. Check here if you really care to erase your ignorance

 

kp posted:

The black slaves were given parcels of land after emancipation , many feared working the land and ran away, some sold the land to the indentured . The Indians then cultivated the lands with rice, kitchen vegetables, coconuts and other cash crops.

Many Blacks despised farming the land for it reminded them of the hardships endured under the White Masters, that is why even up to today almost all the cane and rice farmers are Indians in Guyana.

And hay comes we bai KP, de resident Klansman President, barking he erroneous version of history and daubing he runny diarrhea shit pon black man in de process.

After emancipation many blacks owned farms on the coast. Their lands were intentionally flooded out by the British and their taxes raised forcing them to abandon their farms. Many entered the civil service.

Has nothing to do with blacks "feared working the land and ran away" or many blacks "despised farming". This is right in line with the common theme followed here by the other Indo KKK to paint black Guyanese as lazy, violent sub humans who lilve only to prey on Indians.

Other countries watching alyuh now.

D2 posted:
I live between  two cities most most of my life.  In Philly  i live in center city and it is a mixed upscale community. It became upscale after we moved.  In DC I lived among black people  until recently. I currently live among white people in a Maryland suburb to avoid busy city life and  for more greenery and for cheap.  I do not know what this has to do with the tea in china. 

You always look for information ( or in this case non information) that you can harmonize with your ignorant claims. You do not look for the truth. Check here if you really care to erase your ignorance

 

In fact you run away from the same Blacks you now come here daily claiming are the inventors of everything good and progressive.

I do not know where I ever made the claim about inventions lately but that is another one of your story. I do not know how I can run away from black folks when my wife is black and my kid is black but again that is another story...

Drugb posted:
caribny posted:
caribny posted:
yuji22 posted:

History of rice cultivation

 

Caribbean and Latin America

Rice is not native to the Americas but was introduced to Latin America and the Caribbean by European colonizers at an early date with Spanish colonizers introducing Asian rice to Mexico in the 1520s at Veracruz and the Portuguese and their African slaves introducing it at about the same time to Colonial Brazil. Recent scholarship suggests that enslaved Africans played an active role in the establishment of rice in the New World and that African rice was an important crop from an early period. Varieties of rice and bean dishes that were a staple dish along the peoples of West Africa remained a staple among their descendants subjected to slavery in the Spanish New World colonies, Brazil and elsewhere in the Americas.

The Native Americans of what is now the Eastern United States may have practiced extensive agriculture with forms of wild rice. (References to wild rice in the Americas are to the unrelated Zizania palustris.)

United States

In the United States, colonial South Carolina and Georgia grew and amassed great wealth from the Slavery labor obtained from the Senegambia area of West Africa and from coastal Sierra Leone. At the port of Charleston, through which 40% of all American slave imports passed, slaves from this region of Africa brought the highest prices, in recognition of their prior knowledge of rice culture, which was put to use on the many rice plantations around Georgetown, Charleston, and Savannah. From the enslaved Africans, plantation owners learned how to dyke the marshes and periodically flood the fields. At first the rice was milled by hand with wooden paddles, then winnowed in sweetgrass baskets (the making of which was another skill brought by slaves from Africa).

 http://ricepedia.org/culture/h...-of-rice-cultivation

Druggie just got a mental breakdown as he is trying to peddle that black people knew nothing about rice until 1838 when the first Indians arrived.

It is possible that Druggie is blind and not stupid.   This is from one of our fellow Indo KKK.

The afros in the new world only learnt of rice cultivation at the behest of their masters and the end of a whip. Their involvement in its cultivation was merely laborers fulfilling their masters instructions. 

I normally don't allow endless quotes but I will do this time.  This is evidence of druggies' illiteracy.  Highlighted by him about why enslaved peoples from certain West African regions were acquired by the owners of rice plantations in the Carolinas and he still wails his crap.

Django posted:
Don't know why Caribj conversing with you,maybe enticing you to further expose your Racism towards Africans.

Keep on prancing.

I feel sorry for the poor man. Recent events show that uneducated people with low self esteem need attention to prevent them from doing something drastic.

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