BEAUTIFUL MOSQUES OF THE WORLD:

 

AL MASJID AL NABAWI: SAUDI ARABIA

 

First built

The original mosque was built by Prophet Mohammed and his companions next to the house where he settled after his journey to Medina in 622 CE. The original mosque was an open-air building (covered by palm fronds) with a raised platform for the reading of the Quran. It was a rectangular enclosure of 30 m × 35 m (98 ft × 115 ft) at a height of 2 m (6 ft 7 in) wall which was built with palm trunks and mud walls. It was accessed through three doors: Bab Rahmah (Door of Mercy) to the south, Bab Jibril (Door of Gabriel) to the west and Bab al-Nisa' (Door of the Women) to the east.The basic plan of the building has since been adopted in the building of most mosques throughout the world.

Inside, Prophet Mohammed created a shaded area to the south called the suffah and aligned the prayer space facing north towards Jerusalem. When the qibal (prayer direction) was changed to face the Kaaba in Mecca, the mosque was re-oriented to the south. The mosque also served as a community center, a court, and a religious school.

Seven years later (629 AD/7 AH), the mosque was doubled in size to accommodate the increasing number of Muslims. The area of the mosque was enlarged by 20 m × 15 m (66 ft × 49 ft) and became almost a square 50 m × 49.5 m (164 ft × 162 ft). The height increased to became 3.5 m (11 ft) and the mosque encompassed 35 columns.

The mosque remained like that during the caliphate of Abu Bakr until the caliphate of 'Umar bin al-Khattab, who enlarged the area of the mosque to 3575 m2 and built more wooden columns.

During the time of Uthman ibn Affan an arcade of stone and plaster was added to the mosque and the columns were remolded and built of stone.

 

BEAUTIFUL MOSQUES OF THE WORLD:

 

AL MASJID AL NABAWI: SAUDI ARABIA

 

THE INNER VIEW OF AL MASJID AL NABAWI: SAUDI ARABIA

 

 

When Bin Saud took Medina in 1805, his followers, the Wahhabis, demolished nearly every tomb dome in Medina in order to prevent their veneration, and the Green Dome is said to have narrowly escaped the same fate. Prophet Mohammed 's tomb was stripped of its gold and jewel ornaments, but the dome was preserved either because of an unsuccessful attempt to demolish its hardened structure, or because some time ago Ibn Abd al- Wahhab wrote that he did not wish to see the dome destroyed despite his aversion to people praying at the tomb. Similar events took place in 1925 when the Saudi Ikhwans retook—and this time managed to keep—the city. In the Wahabi interpretation of Islam, the veneration of tombs and places thought to possess supernatural powers was an offense against tawhid.

 

After the foundation of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932, the mosque underwent several major modifications. In 1951 King Ibn Saud (1932–1953) ordered demolitions around the mosque to make way for new wings to the east and west of the prayer hall, which consisted of concrete columns with pointed arches. Older columns were reinforced with concrete and braced with copper rings at the top. The Suleymaniyya and Majidiyya minarets were replaced by two minarets in Mamluk revival style. Two additional minarets were erected to the northeast and northwest of the mosque. A library was built along the western wall to house historic Qurans and other religious texts.

 

In 1973 Saudi King Faisal bin Abdul Aziz ordered the construction of temporary shelters to the west of the mosque to accommodate the growing number of worshippers in 1981, the old mosque was surrounded by new prayer areas on these sides, enlarging five times its size.

 

The latest renovations took place under King Fahd and have greatly increased the size of the mosque, allowing it to hold a large number of worshippers and pilgrims and adding modern comforts like air conditioning. He also installed twenty seven moving domes at the roof of Al-Masjid an-Nabawi.

 

In 2007, according to The Independent, a pamphlet, published by the Saudi Ministry of Islamic Affairs and endorsed by the grand mufti of Saudi Arabia, stated that "the green dome shall be demolished and the three graves flattened in the Prophet's Masjid".

 

The original mosque was not very large, and today the original exists only as a small portion of the larger mosque. The newer and older sections of the mosque are quite distinct. The older section has many colorful decorations and numerous small pillars.

 

 

BEAUTIFUL MOSQUES OF THE WORLD:

 

AL MASJID AL NABAWI: SAUDI ARABIA

 

INNER VIEW OF AL MASJID AL NABAWI: SAUDI ARABIA

 

 

As it stands today, the mosque has a rectangular plan on two floors with the Ottoman prayer hall projecting to the south. The main prayer hall occupies the entire first floor. The mosque enclosure is 100 times bigger than the first mosque built by Muhammad(SAW) and can accommodate more than half a million worshippers.

 

The mosque has a flat paved roof topped with 27 sliding domes on square bases. Holes pierced into the base of each dome illuminate the interior. The roof is also used for prayer during peak times, when the domes slide out on metal tracks to shade areas of the roof, creating light wells for the prayer hall. At these times, the courtyard of the Ottoman mosque is also shaded with umbrellas affixed to freestanding columns. The roof is accessed by stairs and escalators. The paved area around the mosque is also used for prayer, equipped with umbrella tents. Sliding Domes and retractable umbrella-like canopies are designed by the German architect Mahmoud Boda Rasch and his firm SL Rasch GmbH and Buro Happold.

 

The north facade has three evenly spaced porticos, while the east, west and south facades have two. The walls are composed of a series of windows topped by pointed arches with black and white voussoirs. There are six peripheral minarets attached to the new extension, and four others frame the Ottoman structure. The mosque is lavishly decorated with polychrome marble and stones. The columns are of white marble with brass capitals supporting slightly pointed arches, built of black and white stones. The column pedestals have ventilation grills that regulate the temperature inside the prayer hall.

 

This new mosque contains the older mosque within it. The two sections can be easily distinguished: the older section has many colorful decorations and numerous small pillars, and fans have been installed in the ceiling; the new section is in gleaming white marble and is completely air-conditioned.

BEAUTIFUL MOSQUES OF THE WORLD:

 

AL MASJID AL NABAWI: SAUDI ARABIA

 

 

View of the Rawdah from the side

 

As per Prophet Mohammed (SAW), Rawadh is also in Heaven, the same Rawdah which is currently in Masjid -e- Nabwi. It is a small place in Masjid -e- Nabwi, floored with Green Carpet just to identify it & the entire Mosque is floored with red carpet. The Rawdah is one of the most important features of the site. It holds the tomb of Muhammad and two of his companions and first Caliphs, Abu Bakr and Umar ibn al Khattab. A fourth grave is reserved for Jesus, as it is believed that he will return and will be buried at the site. The site is covered by the Green Dome. It was constructed in 1817 C.E. during the reign of Ottoman Sultan Mahmud II and painted green in 1839 C.E. The Rawdah has two small gateways. The original pulpit was much smaller than the current one, and constructed of palm three wood, not marble. The current marble pulpit was constructed by the Ottomans

 

BEAUTIFUL MOSQUES OF THE WORLD:

 

THE QUBA MOSQUE OF MEDINA

THE QUBA MOSQUE OF MEDINA

 

 

The Quba Mosque (Quba' Masjid or Masjid al-Quba,) in the outlying environs of Medina in Saudi Arabia, is the oldest mosque in the world. Its first stones were positioned by the Islamic prophet Muhammad (SAW) as soon as he arrived on his emigration from the city of Mecca to Medina and the mosque was completed by his companions. Muhammad spent more than 20 nights in this mosque (after migrating) praying qasr (a short prayer) while waiting for Ali (RA) whose house was behind this mosque.

 

According to Islamic tradition, offering two rakaʿāt of nafl prayers in the Quba Mosque is equal to performing one Umrah.

 

Muhammad used to go there, riding or on foot, every Saturday and offer a two rak'ah prayer. He advised others to do the same, saying, "Whoever makes ablutions at home and then goes and prays in the Mosque of Quba, he will have a reward like that of an 'Umrah." This hadith is reported by Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Al Nasa'l, Ibn Majah and Hakim al Nashaburi.

 

 

 

BEAUTIFUL MOSQUES OF THE WORLD:

 

THE QUBA MOSQUE OF MEDINA

 

File:MQuba 091109-0146.jpg

When Abdel-Waleed El Wakil was commissioned, in the 20th century, to conceive a larger mosque, he intended to incorporate the old structure into his design. But the old mosque was torn down and replaced with a new one.

The new mosque consists of a rectangular prayer hall raised on a second storey platform. The prayer hall connects to a cluster containing:

  • residential areas,
  • offices,
  • ablution facilities,
  • shops, and
  • a library

Six additional entrances are dispersed on the northern, eastern and western façades. Four minarets mark the corners of the prayer hall. The minarets rest on square bases, have octagonal shafts which take on a circular shape as they reach the top.

 

The prayer hall is arranged around a central courtyard, characterised by six large domes resting on clustered columns. A portico, which is two bays in depth, borders the courtyard on the east and west, while a one-bayed portico borders it on the north, and separates it from the women's prayer area.

The women's prayer area, which is surrounded by a screen, is divided into two parts as a passageway connects the northern entrance with the courtyard.

When Quba Mosque was rebuilt in 1986, the Medina architecture was retained - ribbed white domes, and basalt facing and modest exterior - qualities that recalls Madina's simplicity. The courtyard, is flagged with black, red and white marble. It is screened overhead by day from the scorching heat with shades. arabesque latticework filters the light of the palm groves outside. Elements of the new building include work by the Egyptian architect Abdel-Wahed El-Wakil and the Stuttgart tensile architect Mahmoud Bodo Rasch, a student of Frei Otto.

 

BEAUTIFUL MOSQUES OF THE WORLD:

 

THE GRAND MOSQUE OF KUWAIT CITY

 

THE GRAND MOSQUE OF KUWAIT CITY

 

The Grand Mosque is the largest and the official Mosque in the country of Kuwait. Its area spans 45,000 square metres (480,000 sq ft), out of which the building itself covers 20,000 square metres (220,000 sq ft). The main prayer hall is 72 metres (236 ft) wide on all sides, has 21 teakwood doors, and has lighting provided by 144 windows. The dome of the mosque is 26 metres (85 ft) in diameter and 43 metres (141 ft) high, and is decorated with the Asma al-hosna, the 99 names of God. The mosque can accommodate up to 10,000 men in the main prayer hall, and up to 950 women in the separate hall for women. The mosque also contains a 350 square metres (3,800 sq ft) library of Islamic reference books and documents. To accommodate the large number of vehicles belonging to worshippers, the mosque also contains a 5-level car park underneath the eastern courtyard which can hold up to 550 cars. Construction on the mosque started in1979, and the mosque was completed in 1986. first of Shawwal in 1407, or Eid ul-Fitr. The mosque's minaret, located at the northwest corner, resembles Andalusian architecture

 

BEAUTIFUL MOSQUES OF THE WORLD:

 

KING ZAYED GRAND MOSQUE OF ABU DHABI

 

Screenshot

 

Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque is located in ABU DHABI, the capital city of the UNITED ARAB EMIRATES and is considered to be the key for worship in the country.

 

Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque was initiated by the late President of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), HH SHEIKH ZAYED BIN SULTAN AL NAHYAN, who wanted to establish a structure which unites the cultural diversity of Islamic world, the historical and modern values of architecture and art. His final resting place is located on the grounds beside the same mosque. The mosque was constructed from 1996 to 2007. It is the largest mosque in the United Arab Emirates and the eighth largest mosque in the world. The mosque site is equivalent to the size five football fields approximately.

 

As the country's grand mosque, it is the key place of worship for FRIDAY GATHERING(JUMAAH) and EID PRAYERS. During Eid it can be visited by more than 40,000 people.

 

Sheikh Zayed Grand Mosque Center (SZGMC) offices are located in the east minarets. SZGMC manages the day to day operations, as a place of worship and Friday gathering and also a center of learning and discovery through its educational cultural activities and visitor programs.

 

The library, located in the north/east minaret, serves the community with classic books and publications addressing a range of Islamic subjects: sciences, civilization, calligraphy, the arts, coins and includes some rare publications dating back more than 200 years. In reflection of the diversity of the Islamic world and the United Arab Emirates, the collection comprises material in a broad range of languages including Arabic, English, French, Italian, Spanish, German and Korean

 

 

BEAUTIFUL MOSQUES OF THE WORLD:

 

KING ZAYED GRAND MOSQUE OF ABU DHABI

 

 

File:Interior of Main Hall in Sheik Zayed Mosque.jpg

Interior of the Main Prayer Hall in Sheikh Zayed Mosque

 

The mosque is large enough to accommodate over 40,000 worshippers. The main prayer hall can accommodate over 7,000 worshipers. There are two smaller prayer halls, with a 1,500-capacity each, one of which is the female prayer hall.

There are four minarets on the four corners of the courtyard which rise about 107 m (351 ft) in height. The courtyard, with its floral design, measures about 17,000 m2 (180,000 sq ft),and is considered to be the largest example of marble mosaic in the world.

 

The design of the Sheikh Zayed Mosque has been inspired by Persian, Mughal, and Moorish mosque architecture, particularly the Badshahi Mosque in Lahore Pakistan and the Hassan II Mosque in Casablanca, Morocco being direct influences. The dome layout and floorplan of the mosque was inspired by the Badshahi Mosque and the architecture was inspired by Persian, Mughal and Moorish design. Its archways are quintessentially Moorish and its minarets classically Arab. The design of the mosque can be best described as a fusion of Arab, Persian, Mughal and Moorish architecture

 

 

 

BEAUTIFUL MOSQUES OF THE WORLD:

 

KING ZAYED GRAND MOSQUE OF ABU DHABI

 

Water mirror and columns

 

In 2013, US-based singer Rihanna received negative criticism for taking photographs, with the Mosque in the background, during a private visit. During the incident, she was reported to have posed in a manner deemed offensive and provocative. Staff asked her to leave following the incident

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BEAUTIFUL MOSQUES OF THE WORLD:

 

THE CORDOBA MOSQUE: SPAIN

 

Screenshot

 

THE CORDOBA MOSQUE: SPAIN

 

The Mosque–Cathedral of Córdoba (Spanish: Mezquita–catedral de Córdoba, Mezquita de Córdoba), also called the Mezquita and the Great Mosque of Córdoba, or the Cathedral of the Assumption of Our Lady is a medieval Islamic mosque that was converted into a Catholic Christian cathedral in the Spanish city of Córdoba, Andalusia. The mosque is regarded as the one of the most accomplished monuments of Moorish architecture. Since the early 2000s (decade), Spanish Muslims have lobbied the Roman Catholic Church to allow them to pray in the cathedral. The Muslim campaign has been rejected on multiple occasions, by both Spanish Catholic authorities, and the Vatican.

 

 

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BEAUTIFUL MOSQUES OF THE WORLD:

 

THE CORDOBA MOSQUE: SPAIN

 

Origins

After the Islamic conquest of the Visigothic Kingdom, the building was divided between the Muslims and Christians. When the exiled Umayyad prince Abd al-Rahman I escaped to Spain and defeated the governor of Al-Andalus, Yusuf al-Fihri, he found the Cordovese split up into various sects, such as the Gnostics, Priscillianists, Donatists, and Luciferians. His ambition was to erect a temple, which would rival in magnificence those of Baghdad, Jerusalem, and Damascus, and approach in sanctity the fame of Mecca. The Christian church in Cordoba stood upon the site of the former Roman religious edifice dedicated to Janus, and upon this site, Abd al-Rahman desired to raise his great mosque. He honourably offered to buy the church and the plot from the conquered people. The negotiations of purchase were placed in the hands of the Sultan's favourite secretary, Umeya Ibn Yezid. Under the terms of transference, the Cordovese were permitted to reconstruct the edifice formerly dedicated to St. Faustus, St. Januarius, and St. Marcellus, three martyrs whom they deeply revered.

 

He allowed the Christians to rebuild their ruined churches, and purchased the Christian half of the church of St. Vincent.

 

The Khalif was rich. Besides the treasure wrested from the Goths during the wars, he extracted a tithe upon the produce of the land and on manufactures. A tax was also laid upon every Christian and Jew in Andalusia. Beyond this, the Moorish kings were greatly enriched by the acquisition of the valuable mines of Spain, the quarries of marble, and other sources of wealth. From these revenues Abd-erRahman and his successors, Hisham, Abd-erRahman II., the greatest of the dynasty and the third of the line—and lastly, the extravagant Almanzor—lavished heavy sums upon the designing, construction, and costly adornment of the Mosque. Abd al-Rahman I and his descendants reworked it over two centuries to fashion it as a mosque, starting in 784. Additionally, Abd al-Rahman I used the mosque (originally called Aljama Mosque) as an adjunct to his palace and named it to honour his wife. Traditionally, the mihrab, or apse of a mosque faces in the direction of Mecca; by facing the mihrab, worshipers pray towards Mecca. Mecca is east-southeast of the mosque, but the mihrab points south.

 

The attitude of Abd-er-Rahman I towards the Christian population of Cordova was clement and conciliatory. The work of building the resplendent Mezquita employed thousands of artisans and labourers. This vast undertaking led to the development of all the resources of the district. Durable stone and beautifully veined marbles were quarried from the Sierra Morena and the surrounding regions of the city. Metals of various kinds were dug from the soil, and factories sprang up in Cordova amid the stir and bustle of an awakened industrial energy. A famous Syrian architect made the plans for the Mosque. Leaving his suburban dwelling, the Khalif came to reside in the city, so that he might personally superintend the operations, and offer proposals for the improvement of the designs. Abd-er-Rahman moved about among the workers, directing them during several hours of every day.

 

The mosque underwent numerous subsequent changes: Abd al-Rahman II ordered a new minaret, while Al-Hakam II, in 961, enlarged the building and enriched the Mihrab. The last of the reforms was carried out by Al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir in 987. It was connected to the Caliph's palace by a raised walk-way, mosques within the palaces being the tradition for previous Islamic rulers - with Christian Kings following suit and building their palaces adjacent to churches. The Mezquita reached its current dimensions in 987 with the completion of the outer naves and courtyard.

 

BEAUTIFUL MOSQUES OF THE WORLD:

 

THE CORDOBA MOSQUE: SPAIN

 

The first Muslims to arrive in Cordoba shared the San Vincent Visigoth church with their Christian neighbours. This quickly proved to be insufficient to their needs and Abd ar-Rahman I (758-788) purchased the Christian part of the site. The church was razed around the year 780 and the construction of a mosque began.

BEAUTIFUL MOSQUES OF THE WORLD:

 

ABDUL RAHMAN MOSQUE: KABUL AFGHANISTAN

 

ABDUL RAHMAN MOSQUE: KABUL AFGHANISTAN

 

The Hajji Abdul Rahman Mosque, also known as the Grand Mosque of Kabul, is one of the largest Mosques in Afghanistan. It is located in one of Kabul's commercial areas called Deh Afghanan, near the Pashtunistan Square and across from the once popular Plaza Hotel. The building is a three story, which is built on 3.5 acres of land. One floor of the building is dedicated to women only.

 

The mosque is named after an influential Afghan businessman named Hajji Abdul Rahman who has died but his sons continued the project. Construction of the mosque began in 2001 by Hajji Abdur Rahman but was delayed for several years due to red tape. The mosque has the capacity to serve 10,000 people at a time. There is also a madrasa inside the mosque and a library containing 150,000 books.

 

The major work on the mosque was completed in late 2009 but the official inauguration took place in July 2012 in which Afghan President Hamid Karzai and many other high-ranking officials attended. The building of the mosque is said to have been initially designed by Afghan architect Mir Hafizullah Hashimi.

 





 

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