What chapter(s) and verses are included in Juz’ 10?:
The tenth juz’ of the Qur’an contains parts of two chapters of the Quran: the last part of Surah Al-Anfal (from verse 41) and the first part of Surah At-Tauba (to verse 92).
When were the verses of this juz’ revealed?:
The first part of this juz', Surah Al-Anfal, was revealed directly after the Battle of Badr. The second part of this juz', Surah At-Tauba ("Repentance") was primarily revealed at the time of the expedition to Tabuk, in the 9th year after Hijrah.
- "Allah will never change the grace which He has bestowed on a people until they change what is in their own souls. And truly Allah is He Who hears and knows all things." 8:53
- "But if the enemy inclines towards peace, you should also incline towards peace, and trust in Allah, for He is the One that hears and knows all things." 8:61
- "Those who believe, and suffer exile and strive with might and main, in Allah's cause, with their goods and their persons, have the highest rank in the sight of Allah; they are the people who will achieve salvation." 9:20
- "They take their priests and their anchorites to be their lords in derogation of Allah, and they take as their Lord Christ the son of Mary. Yet they were commanded to worship but One God, there is no god but He. Praise and glory to Him! Far is He from having the partners they associate with Him." 9:31
- "The Believers, men and women, are protectors one of another. They enjoin what is just, and forbid what is evil. They observe regular prayers, practice regular charity, and obey Allah and His Messenger. On them will Allah pour His mercy, for Allah is Exalted in power, Wise. Allah has promised to Believers, men and women, gardens underneath which rivers flow, to dwell in, and beautiful mansions in gardens of everlasting bliss. But the greatest bliss is the good pleasure of Allah. That is the supreme felicity." 9:71-72
What is the main theme of this juz’?:
Sura Al-Anfal continues from the previous section, with a reminder that although the Muslims won the Battle of Badr, one must learn from mistakes rather than simply rejoice. Muslims should trust in Allah, and not be swayed by fear or ignorance into giving up before the battle even starts. Muslims are instructed to be well-prepared to defend themselves in battle, but if the other party is inclined towards peace they should be ready to make peace with them.
Muslims must honor treaties that they have entered into, and not break them as long as the other party honors them as well. They must treat prisoners of war well. Finally, the Muslims should stand together as one community, and join together against those who wish to harm them.
The next section (Surah At-Tauba) was revealed several years later in time, but carries forward the same theme of behavior during times of battle. This chapter was revealed at the time of the expedition to Tabuk, in the 9th year after Hijrah. By this time, the Islamic state was well-established and well-organized, and Islam was spreading throughout the region. At the north, near Tabuk, the Islamic empire approached the boundaries of the powerful Roman Empire. The decision was made to act forcefully in the northern region in order to protect the Muslims who were living in the border region, and to establish the Islamic empire as a force to be reckoned with, not another fledgling movement that the Romans could easily crush. The Muslims won a moral victory when the Romans withdrew from the area rather than face battle.
The themes of this section deal with the nature of warfare and the sanctity of treaties. Muslims are to negotiate in good faith and respect the terms of an agreement. However, if the other party breaks a treaty first, there is no obligation on the Muslims to continue to honor it. Muslims who are compelled to fight are urged to fight without fear.
They should not cower and hide at home to avoid the fight, allowing danger, difficulties, doubts or temptations to distract from one's duty. A warning is given about hypocrites, as they are reluctant to participate and hide their true colors.
This section contains several verses which are often misunderstood as advocating war and terrorism. The context of the verses is critical in their interpretation. So when a verse says, "Slay them wherever you find them," (9:5) the verse is talking about those enemy troops who had broken their treaty and attacked the Muslims, not non-Muslims in general.